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Aromaticity; Chapter 11

An introduction to the requirements for aromaticity, Huckel's rule, and the diversity of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds found in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry.

 

Aromaticity; Chapter 11

Criteria used for counting the electrons in both aromatic and non-aromatic pi systems, including carbon and heteroaromatic systems with lone pairs.

 

Aromaticity; Chapter 11

The Frost circle, a device for determining the populations of bonding, non-bonding, and antibonding orbitals in conjugated cyclic systems.

 

Electronic Effects in EAS; Chapter 12

A discussion of the different effects that substituents on a benzene system have on the reactivity of the ring, as well as the effect on electron density at each carbon within the cycle.

 

Directing Effects in EAS; Chapter 12

Substituent effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution; how each type of group either stabilizes or destabilizes the intermediate cation and how that influences product distribution.

 

Heteroaromatic Reactivity; Chapter 12

A description of the reactivity of electron-poor and electron-rich heterocyles in the presence of electrophiles and nucleophiles; lone pair inclusion in the aromatic sextet being key.

 

Heteroaromatic Reactivity; Chapter 12

A description of the reactivity of electron-poor and electron-rich heterocyles in the presence of electrophiles and nucleophiles; lone pair inclusion in the aromatic sextet being key.

 

Introduction to Infra-Red Spectroscopy; Chapter 13

Infra-Red spectroscopy is discussed from the basics of bond vibration to the assembly of the IR spectrometer; examples of output (spectra) and interpretation are given.

 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Chapter 13

The basics of electronic environment and chemical shift in NMR spectra. The concepts of shielding and deshielding are covered which influence where a signal shows on a spectrum.

 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Chapter 13

The use of integration in NMR spectroscopy to aid in structure elucidation. Other useful videos in this series are found here.